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Constitutional Law

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Commonwealth v. Mitchneck
Failing to pay money owed is not theft failing to pay money to a creditor under an agreement to pay the debt of another does not constitute fraudulent conversion, since the money at issue never belonged to the creditor. Conversion novation
Mousetrap Cartoon
Right to an attorney; call my lawyer; custody; custodial interrogation; need a lawyer.
Bowers v. Hardwick
Fundamental right to engage in sodomy, homosexual conduct.
Brown v. Board of Education
Separate but equal doctrine, public education, violates the fourteenth amendment, tangibly equal resources and facilities, segregation.
Bush v. Gore
Constitutional standards apply to recounts, clear standards, determine voter intent, recount of votes.
Griswold v. Connecticut
Right to privacy, marital relationship, contraceptives, penumbra, zone of privacy.
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
Citizen "enemy combatant" has due process right to contest his detention, non detention act.
Lawrence v. Texas
Texas sodomy statute law, private consensual sexual conduct.
Marbury v. Madison
Judiciary act, power to declare unconstitutional, appellate jurisdiction, mandamus, original jurisdiction.
Marbury v. Madison
Separate but equal accommodations, racial inferiority, the fourteenth amendment, separate but equal doctrine.
San Antonio v. Rodriguez
Appropriations among school districts, comparative wealth, education is not a fundamental right.
Shelley v. Kraemer
Judicial enforcement of racially restrictive covenants constitutes state action, fourteenth amendment.
Texas v. Johnson
Burning the American flag, freedom of expression, first amendment, symbolic speech.
Washington v. Glucksberg
Laws prohibiting physician assisted suicide, terminally ill, mentally competent, patients in extreme pain, right to die.
Gonzales v. Raich
Medical marijuana, cancer, terminally ill, prescription morphine.
Kelo v. New London
Yes, you now have to share a room with your brother. But don't worry, the whole family will benefit from my new billiards room!
Kelo v. New London
Fifth amendment, eminent domain just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property, private economic development.
Cooper v. Aaron
School desegregation, Brown v. Board of Education, supremacy clause.
Loving v. Virginia
Interracial marriage, equal protection.
Yick Wo v. Hopkins
Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial discrimination.
Washington v. Davis
Disparate impact; disparate treatment.
Moose Lodge No. 107 v. Irvis
Private club; state action.
Edmonson v. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc.
Peremptory challenge; Batson challenge, state action, voir dire, exlude black jurors.
City of Richmond v. J.A. Croson Company
Racial quota; strict scrutiny, remedial plan.
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena
Affirmative action; strict scrutiny, race based compensation incentive, state actor.
Shaw v. Reno
Gerrymandering; reapportionment; strict scrutiny; voting rights act, odd shaped voting districts.
Railway Express Agency, Inc. v. New York
Equal protection; rational basis test.
Frontiero v. Richardson
Sex suspect classification, similarly situated members of different sexes.
Craig v. Boren
Intermediate scrutiny, gender based classifications.
United States v. Virginia
Public university gender classification requires exceedingly persuasive justification.
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center
Quasi suspect classification.
Romer v. Evans
Equal protection clause; homosexual rights, state action.
Baehr v. Lewin
Prohibition on same sex marriage; gay rights.
Palko v. Connecticut
Fifth amendment; double jeapordy clause; concept of ordered liberty.
Adamson v. California
Right against self incrimination.
Skinner v. Oklahoma ex rel. Williamson
Forced sterilization violate due process.
Lochner v. New York
Police power. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees an individual the right to make a contract affecting his or her personal business.
Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, landmark, payment of just compensation.
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council
Eminent domain clause; takings clause, nuisance, regulation, payment of just compensation.
Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. v. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency
Moratorium on develepment as eminent domain clause; takings clause, payment of just compensation.
Reynolds v. Sims
Reapportionment; dilution of representation, equal protection clause.
Edgewood Independent School District v. Kirby
Public school expenditures among districts must be equal.
Saenz v. Roe
Privileges and immunities clause; welfare benefits, length of residency.
Meyer v. Nebraska
Liberty interests, teach english only.
Poe v. Ullman
Actual controversy, actual dispute, declaratory judgment, nullification, per legem terrae, ripeness.
Roe v. Wade
Complete ban on abortions violates the right to privacy, state, abortion laws, viable zone of privacy.
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey
Restrictions on abortions cannot unduly interfere with a woman's right to choose, judicial bypass, substantive due process, undue burden test.
Board of Regents v. Roth
Due process, contract rights, property interests, procedural due process.
Mathews v. Eldridge
A hearing, termination of social security disability benefits, terminating disability benefits; administrative procedures, due process, entitlement.
R.A.V. v. City of Saint Paul
Fighting words may be prohibited, ordinance, target race, color, creed, religion, or gender violates the first amendment, content based restriction, defamation, fighting words, libel.
Abrams v. United States
The first amendment does not protect speech aimed at influencing the american public against the war the government is trying to wage.
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Speech advocating social change is protected by the first amendment, speech that advocates violence but does not incite immediate use of force or violence.
New York Times Company v. Sullivan
A public official may receive damages only for malicious libel, showing of actual malice, defamation.
Bartnicki v. Vopper
Illegally obtained information, matter of public significance, chilling effect, intervenor.
Miller v. California
Distribution of obscene material, the first amendment, sexually explicit material, prurient interest, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value, obscenity, pornography.
City of Renton v. Playtime Theaters, Inc.
Zoning ordinances may target secondary effects of speech without offending the first amendment, free speech, content based restriction.
Cohen v. California
Vulgar speech does not disturb the peace, offensive speech.
Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council
The first amendment protects some commercial speech, flow of commercial information.
Buckley v. Valeo
Contributions to political campaigns are protected as speech, limits on campaign contributions, limits on campaign expenditures, the first amendment.
United States v. Grace
The first amendment prohibits denying access to a traditional public forum, sidewalks, forums for public expression, designated public forum.
Ward v. Rock Against Racism
Noise ordinances advance a substantial government goal, limit speech, protect a legitimate government interest, content based, foreclose alternate avenues of communication; least restrictive intrusive.
International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. v. Lee
An airport terminal is not a public forum, regulations prohibiting solicitation for donations and religious leafleting.
Rust v. Sullivan
Funding, abortion counseling programs, violate the first amendment.
Legal Services Corporation v. Valazquez
Federal grant money, challenge welfare laws, the first amendment, legal assistance, welfare recipients.
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
Schools may exercise editorial control over student speech in school sponsored activities, the first amendment.
Madsen v. Womens Health Center, Inc.
Injunction, the first amendment protection, narrowly tailored, prior restraint.
Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc.
Overbreadth doctrine, a resolution that prohibits all conduct or speech protected by the first amendment is unconstitutional.
Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte
Private association, denial of membership to women, unruh act to the california rotary clubs, the right of expressive association, the first amendment.
Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Smith
Free exercise clause, unemployment benefits, peyote, unemployment compensation, state criminal statute, religious ritual.
Everson v. Board of Education
Government reimbursement to facilitate transportation of students to school does not violate the establishment clause.
Lee v. Weisman
Prayers at commencement exercises violate the first amendment, state endorsement of religion.
Zelman v. Simmons Harris
School voucher program, religious affiliated schools, vouchers to parents, not violate the establishment clause of the first amendment.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Congress power to enact legislation to carry out its powers, constitutional authority, pass legislation, establish a national bank that is exempt from state taxing powers. necessary and proper clause.
Gibbons v. Ogden
The constitution's grant of authority to regulate commerce among the states must necessarily include the ability to regulate navigation; commerce clause; dormant commerce clause; supremacy clause.
United States v. Darby
Intrastate components of interstate commerce fall within the commerce clause, ability to regulate certain intrastate activities.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
Racial discrimination has an economic impact and so may be regulated by congress under the commerce clause.
United States v. Lopez
Enact school gun possession laws, connected with interstate commerce, congressional interference in a purely local concern.
The Civil Rights Cases
The civil rights act was intended to protect the legal and civil rights of all citizens. civil rights civil rights act.
Jones v. Alfred H Meyer Company
Congress has the authority to prohibit private discrimination in order to give full effect to the provisions of the thirteenth amendment.
Katzenbach v. Morgan
State voting requirements cannot conflict with federal provisions, federal voting rights act. supremacy clause.
City of Rome v. United States
Congress has the right to prohibit unintended effects of practices that do not alone violate the 15th amendment, prohibit voting practices, discriminatory purpose, discriminatory effect when applied.
City of Boerne v. Flores
The religious freedom restoration act (rfra) exceeds congress' power under the fourteenth amendment and violates principles necessary to maintain separation of powers and a federal state balance.
United States v. Morrison
Congress may not regulate non economic, violent criminal conduct based solely on an assertion that the conduct has a negative impact on interstate commerce.
South Dakota v. Dole
Congress may condition payments of federal funds to states on their passage of laws restricting alcohol sales, spending power, twenty first amendment.
Missouri v. Holland
Treaties, superior to state laws, federal laws and regulations enacted pursuant to a validly entered treaty take precedence over the laws of the individual states.
Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority
State and local government employers are subject to the FLSA, application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to local government employers does not violate the tenth amendment.
New York v. United States
Congress cannot impose a regulatory process on the individual states in violation of the tenth amendment, forcing individual states to comply with nationwide regulations.
Printz v. United States
Congress may not compel state and local law enforcement officers to administer the brady act, federal law that requires a particular action by a state or local officer.
Gibbons v. Ogden
States may not exercise regulatory power delegated to congress simply because congress has failed to act, absence of congressional action to regulate commerce.
City of Philadelphia v. New Jersey
Restrict the flow of waste, landfills, states may not regulate commercial activity within their borders in such a way as to favor state interests. Dormant commerce clause.
Kassel v. Consolidated Freightways Corporation
State regulations having a direct impact on interstate commerce must be justifiable as a safety concern.
United Building and Construction Trades Council of Camden County v. Mayor and Council of Camden
Municipal ordinances that discriminate based on local residency may violate the privileges and immunities clause, municipal residency requirements have interstate effect.
Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case
Presidential authority must be explicit, president, specific constitutional provisions, there is no inherent executive authority, executive order.
United States v. Nixon
Executive privilege does not shield the president from the judicial process, recognized claim of privilege, due process considerations, criminal trial, executive immunity, in camera inspection, speech or debate clause.
Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha
Three branches of government; grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further legislation.
Clinton v. New York
The line item veto violates the constitution, line item veto act, virtual amendment of congressional acts by the president, delegation doctrine.
Bowsher v. Synar
Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers.
Morrison v. Olson
The appointments clause of the constitution permits congress to delegate to the courts the ability to appoint special prosecutors who are inferior officers. Independent counsel.
Ex Parte McCardle
Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the appellate jurisdiction of the federal courts and the supreme court. Repeal.
Baker v. Carr
Apportioned; apportionment; guaranty clause of the constitution, judicially resolving an otherwise political question, political right; the equal protection clause, judicial question.
Nixon v. United States
Nonjusticiable, impeachment of a federal judge, U.S. Senate, sole authority; judicial review, judicial participation.
Allen v. Wright
Case or controversy requirement, cognizable controversy, redress, confer standing, satisfy the federal standing requirement, present injury.
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife
Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact. Injury to the environment.
Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Laidlaw Enviornmental Services TOC, Inc.
Plaintiff residents in the area of South Carolina's North Tyger River had standing to sue an industrial polluter against whom various deterrent civil penalties were being pursued.
Ashcroft v. American Civil Liberties Union
Harmful internet content, least restrictive alternative to protect minors, suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech, unconstitutional, less restrictive alternatives exist.
Ashcroft v. The Free Speech Coalition
Overbreadth doctrine, speech restrictions prohibiting a substantial amount of protected speech are overbroad and unconstitutional, child pornography, obscenity.
Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. Garrett
States are not liable under the ada the americans with disabilities act, liable for employment discrimination, disability. eleventh amendment, equal protection, sovereign immunity.
Brentwood Academy v. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association
Private associations can be state actors, state action, close nexus, challenged action, seemingly private behavior.
Brown v. Legal Foundation of Washington
Iolta accounts are not takings requiring just compensation. Just compensation is measured by the property owner's loss rather than the government's gain.
Bush v. Gore
Constitutional standards apply to recounts. In the absence of clear standards to determine voter intent, a recount of votes cannot be permitted.
City of Littleton Colorado v. Z.J. Gifts
Licensing scheme implicating first amendment interests must provide for "prompt judicial review" of any administrative denial of a license.
Easley v. Cromartie
Legislative determinations, district boundary challenges, legislatively drawn boundarie, legitimate political objectives, traditional districting principles.
Elk Grove Unified School Dist. V. Newdow
Federal courts abstain from resolving state domestic relations issues, religious education, abstention, standing.
Engel v. Vitale
Organized prayers in public schools are unconstitutional, the establishment clause of the first amendment, compose official prayers, religious program carried on by the government.
Florida Lime and Avocado Growers, Inc. v. Paul, Director, Dept. of Agriculture of California
Conflict preemption requires impossible compliance with both federal and state regulations.
Grutter v. Bollinger
Educational diversity is a compelling state interest, racial classifications, narrowly tailored, strict scrutiny.
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
Individual due process rights must be balanced against national security, citizen detainee, classification as an enemy combatant, habeas corpus, war power.
Lawrence v. Texas
Regulation of sexual expression violates the fundamental right of privacy, state laws criminalizing homosexual relations violate substantive due process. Sodomy.
Locke v. Davey
Public funding of religious instruction justifies scholarship restrictions, the free exercise clause, state financed religious instruction, establishment clause.
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly
Federal cigarette advertising regulations preempt conflicting state regulations, congress expressly preempts state or local action, conflicting state regulation must yield to federal law, supremacy clause.
Lorillard Tobacco Company v. Reilly2
Restrictions on commercial speech are not subject to strict scrutiny.
Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs
The FMLA; state governments are liable for money damages for interfering or restraining state employees exercise of their rights under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993; family leave.
Nguyen v. Immigration and Naturalization Service
Gender based classification, basic biological differences between men and women factor into an equal protection analysis, substantially related to achieving an important governmental objective.
Palazzolo v. Rhode Island
Eminent domain, inverse condemnation, just compensation, ripeness, taking, environmental concerns justify limitations on development, when a regulation denies all economically beneficial or productive use of property.
Palmore v. Sidoti
Custody determinations, potential racial bias against the child, courts may not use private racial bias as a justification for official court action.
Pierce County Washington v. Guillen
Congress may regulate intrastate activity that affects interstate commerce, the commerce clause, instrumentalities of interstate commerce.
Republican Party of Minnesota v. White
Judicial impartiality is not a compelling enough interest to justify suppressing candidates views, government regulations that supress speech on the basis of its content must be narrowly tailored, first amendment.
Sabri v. United States
Spending clause, appropriate federal funds for the general welfare, facial challenge, necessary and proper clause, spending power.
Shaw v. Murphy
Prison officials have discretion to restrict prisoners speech, restrictions on prisoner's communication mst be "reasonably related to legitimate penological interests."
Silveira v. Lockyer
The collective rights interpretation of the second amendment is affirmed; right to maintain an effective state militia and does not establish an individual right to own or possess firearms for personal use, right to bear arms.
Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. United States Army Corps of Engineers
Administrative action conflicting with clear statutory language is not entitled to deference, administrative authority; commerce clause.
State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Campbell
Punitive damages awards must be weighed against the compensatory damages; reprehensibility of the defendant's conduct, disparity between actual harm caused and amount of the punitive damages awarded. bad faith, supersedeas bond.
Tennessee v. Lane
Title ii of the ada is a valid exercise, abrogate the state's eleventh amendment immunity, congress must have unequivocally expressed its intent; americans with disabilities act.
Thomas and Windy City Hemp Development Board v. Chicago Park District
Content based restriction, prior restraint, requiring permits for all public assemblies does not infringe on the freedom of speech, content neutral regulation of access to public property, provides adequate standards.
United States v. American Library Association, Inc.
Libraries do not violate the first amendment by blocking pornography, censor.
United States v. Seeger
Religion, the test of whether a belief "in a relation to a supreme being", sincere and meaningful, occupies a place in the life of its possessor parallel to that filled by the orthodox belief in god.
Vieth v. Jubelirer
Political gerrymandering claims are not justiciable, no judicially discoverable and manageable standards for resolving the issues presented, nonjusticiable political question, justiciability.
Virginia v. Black
Burning a cross, violates the first amendment, state statute banning cross burning with the intent to intimidate another person, free expression, prima facie evidence.
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, Inc. v. Village of Stratton
Freedom of speech includes the right to disseminate religious views at private residences; requiring a permit, door to door activities on private residential property.
Whitman v. American Trucking Association, Inc.
Delegation doctrine; executive action involves a certain degree of administrative discretion; intelligible principle; legislative power; separation of powers.
Gratz v. Bollinger
A point system emphasizing minority status violates equal protection; university admissions policies; take race into account, affirmative action; reverse discrimination.
Rogers v. Lodge
Discriminatory at large voting schemes are unconstitutional; multimember districts violate the fourteenth amendment; motivated by a discriminatory purpose.
Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corporation
At-large system violate Amendments Fourteen or Fifteen or the Voting Rights Act on if there is discriminatory intent.
Hill v. Colorado
Disproportionate impact; equal protection violation; proof of intentional or purposeful discrimination; disparate impact; invidious discrimination; zoning.
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
Confrontational speakers; unwilling recipients; a reasonable restriction on the time, place, and manner of protected speech does not violate the first amendment; content-based restriction; forum.
Miller-El v. Dretke
Peremptory challenge; juror discrimination; racial discrimination; Batson v. Kentucky, Johnson v. California.
Daniel M'Naughten
Dog is upset because police officer thinks he has culpability but the cat does not.
People v. Bowen
Gazelle tells lion that charging at him constitutes an attempt on his life.
People v. Taylor
Getaway car driver worries about his accomplices committing felony murder in liquor store.
State v. Whitmarsh
Gay rights; same sex marriage; sodomy laws; dog refuses sex with cat.
United States v. Bergman
Elderly man argues for no custody time since he will not be a recidivist.
United States v. Escamilla
Firearm accidentally goes off while pointed at a man during an argument.
Commonwealth v. Poindexter
In the absence of a statutory definition of the elements of a crime, a court must resort to the common law for guidance; sodomy.
Locke v. State
Oral sex performed upon a woman constitutes a crime against nature; due process clause.
Locke v. Rose
A statute is void for vagueness if it fails to specify the conduct punishable thereunder such that the defendant lacks fair warning that his conduct violates the statute. Habeas corpus; per curiam; opinion; vagueness doctrine; void for vagueness.
Rose v. Locke
Vagueness doctrine; void for vagueness. Court broad construction of a state criminal statute provides fair notice that statutory language will encompass conduct related to that forbidden by the statute.
Wilson v. State
Ex post facto law. A statute may not be retroactively enforced against conduct that was not illegal at the time it was committed.
State v. Mullen
Absent legislative intent indicating otherwise, repeal or amendment of statute prior to criminal defendant prosecution that renders conduct engaged in by defendant no longer criminal bars further prosecution; deterrence; retribution; savings clause.
Perkins v. State of North Carolina
Cruel and unusual punishment is an evolving doctrine and depends on the prevailing societal views of the relative punishment afforded to a specific crime. Habeas corpus; ineffective assistance of counsel; nolo contendere.
Pierce v. Commonwealth
Home rule ordinance. Local municipalities may not enact local legislation directly conflicting with state statutes establishing a comprehensive scheme for criminal punishment.
Regina v. Cunningham
Maliciously requires a showing that the defendant acted with an actual intent to cause the particular kind of harm done or that the particular kind of harm might result from his actions. Malicious; malicious act.
State v. Rocker
Indecent exposure can be established by an inference of the defendant's general intent to be seen by the public.
Ford v. State
Transferred intent is inapplicable to offenses requiring the specific intent to inflict specific harm upon a specific individual; assault; general intent.
Smallwood v. State
Merely exposing another to the risk of contracting HIV does not establish intent to kill; attempt; specific intent.
Sandstrom v. Montana
Jury instructions that, by conclusive presumption or misleading directions, shift the burden of proof on an essential element of the crime to the defendant violate the Due Process Clause. Burden of production; burden of persuasion.
United States v. Jewell
One acts knowingly not only with positive knowledge, but also with an awareness of a high probability that a fact exists; actual knowledge; wilfull blindness.
Barnes v. United States
When common sense and experience suggest defendant must have known or been aware of a high probability of existence of a fact, the jury may infer his knowledge as element of crime charged. Inference; knowing.
State v. Hazelwood
Application of simple negligence standard in criminal proceedings does not violate Due Process Clause; governmental interests deterring similar future conduct outweigh infringement personal freedom. Criminal negligence; strict liability.
State v. Larson
Recklessness is conscious and unjustifiable disregard of substantial risk that offender's conduct may cause certain result or may be of certain nature. Reckless disregard.
State v. Cushman
When, by statute, recklessness is established without existence of actual danger, defendant may not escape liability because he was without power to cause danger to his victim. Reckless; reckless endangerment.
State v. Stepniewski
Strict liability. Due process does not require intent to violate the law as element of the crime.
State v. Sexton
Evidence of the mistaken belief relates to whether the State has failed to prove the essential mental element of the crime beyond a reasonable doubt. Mistake of fact; reckless.
People v. Marrero
Mistake of law does not relieve a defendant from criminal liability unless it negates the mental element required for conviction.
State v. Caddell
Unconsciousness is an affirmative defense requiring defendant to prove beyond reasonable doubt that mental element of crime is negated by his unconsciousness. Burden of persuasion; burden of production; insanity; mens rea; voluntary.
People v. Gory
Possession requires knowingly exercising immediate and exclusive control over an object. Willful.
Wheeler v. United States
Constructive possession of controlled substance is established when the defendant is knowingly in a position or has the right to exercise dominion or control over it, and has some appreciable ability to guide its destiny.
County Court of Ulster County v. Allen
Permissive presumption is constitutional if there exists a rational connection between the proof and the facts presumed. Possession.
State v. Williquette
Omission to act by one under a legal duty to do so is sufficient for criminal liability if it is a substantial factor in bringing about the consequences prohibited by statute. Child abuse; information.
Hughes v. State
Unborn fetus is a human being within the meaning of the state homicide statute. Born alive rule; manslaughter; misdemeanor manslaughter.
Mullaney v. Wilbur
Malice afterthought. Due Process Clause requires the prosecution to prove beyond a reasonable doubt the absence of heat of passion when it is at issue in a homicide prosecution. Habeas corpus; manslaughter; mens rea; murder.
Patterson v. New York
Heat of passion. Due process does not require the prosecution to disprove all affirmative defenses that may be available to defendant, so long as it has proven guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. manslaughter; murder.
People v. Washington
Heat of passion is determined by the standard of an ordinary, reasonable person without consideration of unique individual characteristics.
People v. Berry
Cooling-off period. Voluntary manslaughter is the unlawful killing of a human being, without malice, upon a sudden quarrel or in the heat of passion.
State v. Guthrie
Premeditation. To establish first-degree murder, premeditation must be proved by evidence that defendant considered his decision to kill for some period of time before act of killing. Deliberate first- degree murder; intent; second-degree murder.
Hyam v. Director of Public Prosecutions
One who, with full knowledge of the dangers involved, deliberately exposes a person to danger of death or bodily injury is liable for murder upon death of victim. Homicide; malice afterthought; manslaughter; murder.
State v. Goodseal
Felony murder must be based on an underlying felony that is inherently dangerous to human life. Felony-murder rule.
State v. Rose
Causation. Criminal conviction for manslaughter must be based on the actions that cause the victim's death. reasonable doubt.
Kibbe v. Henderson
Causation; habeas corpus; intervening cause; second-degree murder; superseding cause. Failure to instruct the jury on a material element of the prosecution's case violates the defendant's due process rights.
Regina v. Blaue
One who inflicts an injury upon another that results in death cannot avoid liability because the victim could have taken better care of himself or herself. Diminished capacity; intervening cause; manslaughter; murder; superseding cause.
Gregg v. Georgia
Death penalty is not cruel and unusual punishment under appropriate circumstances. Bifurcated trial.
Pate v. Robinson
Under state law, a defendant must be afforded a hearing to determine his competency to stand trial when evidence suggests the defendant may have suffered from insanity at the time the crime was committed. Incompetency.
Jackson v. Indiana
Fourteenth Amendment; pending criminal charges; insufficient basis for applying lesser procedural or substantive safeguards to prior civil commitment than otherwise afforded similarly situated persons. Civil commitment; incompetency; insanity.
United States v. Brawner
Model Penal Code criminal defendant not responsible for actions result of a mental disease or defect if lacks substantial capacity either to appreciate criminality or make conduct conform requirements law. Insanity defense; mental illness.
State v. McVey
Diminished responsibility defense not applicable to general intent crimes. Insanity defense; diminished capacity; specific intent defense.
Powell v. Texas
Chronic alcoholics are not afforded a constitutional defense against criminal liability. Actus reus; cruel and unusual punisment; intoxication; mens rea; public intoxication; voluntary intoxication.
United States v. Moore
Drug addiction is not a common law defense to criminal charges of drug possession. Addict; drug addict; mens rea.
Montana v. Egelhoff
Due Process Clause does not require a state to consider evidence of voluntary intoxication to negate the mental element of a crime. Mens rea; specific intent.
City of Minneapolis v. Altimus
Defendant who is mentally deficient due to involuntary intoxication is relieved of criminal responsibility if he is left temporarily insane. Mens rea; pathological intoxication.
State v. Q.D.
Infancy defense to the capacity to understand the wrongfulness of minor's actions applies to juvenile adjudications and may be rebutted only by clear and convincing evidence. Criminal capacity; minority.
United States v. Peterson
Castle doctrine; no retreat rule. Self-defense must be in response to an actual or reasonably perceived unlawful and immediate threat of deadly force by another and must reasonably relate to the threat faced.
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